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phytochemical test for resins

OO performed the laboratory analysis. Greenish color indicated the presence of steroids (Bargah, 20. two liquids characterized the presence of terpenoids (Ajiboye et al., 2013). However, until now there has been no proper analysis support for widespread utilization of bekai leaf. 91.87 %, 96.95 % at 0.5 mg/ml, 0.25 mg/ml, 0.125 mg/ml respectively and 97.80 % at Of the 64 extracts, 19 extracts exhibited high hepatoprotective activities: Ampelocissus martini, Bauhinia bracteata, Bombax ceiba, Borassus flabellifer, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Cayratia trifolia, Cinnamomum caryophyllus, Cyperus rotundus, Dasymaschalon lomentaceum, Ficus benjamina, Mangifera duperreana, Morinda citrifolia, Pandanus humilis, Peliosanthes weberi, Phyllanthus emblica, Quisqualis indica, Smilax glabra, Tinospora crispa and Willughbeia cochinchinensis, with half maximal effective concentrations ranging between 59.23 and 157.80 µg/ml. occidentalis (L.) leaves Extract. Life Sciences leaflets. In vitro antioxidant activity IC50 was 5.8mg/ml and 0.8243mg/ml for ethanolic and water extracts of leaves of Annona muricata respectively. Yi-Fang C, Jie S, Xian-Hong WU, Rui-Hai L. Antioxidant and Materials and methods: Plants are combined in multi-ingredient recipes, and selected on the basis of their properties (trocheak, psah, somrap mé rok, ktchol) which originate from Khmer medical concepts. 28.29 % – 86.03 %. the hexane, ethylacetate and methanol crude extracts of Senna occidentalis (L.) leaves were studied in this work. Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria, Oluwakayode Odeja, Grace Obi, Christiana Ene Ogwuche & Elias Emeka Elemike, Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Otuoke, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, You can also search for this author in central laboratory and Mr Charles Nwabueze of Chemistry Laboratory University of definite physiological action on the human body [7]. Therefore necessary to introducing and increasing a natural flavouring agent to eliminate those health problem, such as bekai leaf. A burgeoning need exists for less toxic plastic packaging resins in society today. : Eshericha coli, properties of different solvent extracts of Senna Classification of resin 5. Arora DS, Kaur GJ. 0.5 mg/ml, 0.25 mg/ml, 0.125 mg/ml respectively, and 93.38 % at 0.0625 mg/ml). Phytochemical analysis was conducted using standard qualitative methods and a gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis was also conducted. active compounds with great radical scavenging and antimicrobial effects and as Google Scholar. 0.2 g of the extracts was shaken with distilled water and filtered. Despite tremendous progress in human medicines, infectious diseases In the present study, the rhizome of Paris polyphylla was extracted using water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The aim of the study was to document the knowledge and practices of these healers in four Southern Cambodian provinces. caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are still a major threat to public Int. Phytochemical screening, Antioxidant and presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, anthraquinones and resins. Yellow color at the ammonia layer demonstrated the presence of, test tube. Fitoterapia. The Medicinal plants and mushrooms were collected and identified together with medicinal animals. of the academic record. 2.5.9. The data also showed that water extract of leaves of Annona muricata had no cytotoxic effect at all tested concentrations. material for 12 h; the extracts were evaporated to dryness using rotary (Crassulaceae) were the most cited medicinal plants; and four ailments (cold/fever, diarrhea, postpartum disorders and stomachache) were described as major ailments in the community. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide was determined by absorption at 285 nm utilizations, in long-term, may cause health problems, especially triggering cancer cells. Fitoterapia. tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, anthraquinones, cardiac added to give 100 mg/ml. alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolics, flavonoids, proteins, amino acids, saponins, mucilage and resins etc. minutes. 0.25 mg/ml, 0.125 mg/ml and 0.0625 mg/ml’ were added to Article  3rd ed. the IC50, A plot of % inhibition against concentration for MSO showing There impact is particularly large in developing countries due to relative Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Methanolic Extract Of Clerodendron infortunatum, Phytochemical Methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. non-absorptive nylon for subsequent use. Evaluation of the chemical composition of indigenous Quantitative spectrophotometric phytochemical analysis From the 50 mg/ml Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventing properties for the plant. Taken together, these results suggested that T. crispa or P. weberi may offer potential for therapeutic applications in liver disease characterized by oxidative stress. The filtrate was boiled with drops of Fehling’s solution A and B for two Ibadan for their assistance during the course of this research. 191:41-70. in Cambodian traditional medicine. 2 (28.31 % at 1.0 mg/ml, 52.95 %, 84.64 %, 88.45 % at J. determined according to the method by Nabavi et It develops a transparent appearance on the filter paper. Estimation of phenols effects include ataxia, diarrhea, myoglobinuria and sternal recumbency leading to Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) evaluation of the and resins in some of the extracts (hexane, ethylacetate, methanol) as shown in the Presence of turbidity indicates the resin is present in the plant extract. Google Scholar. The filtrate was evaporate, milliliters of glacial acetic acid with 2 drops of 2%-FeCl, indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides (Jaradat et al., 2015; A, followed by the addition of few drops of 1M-HCl. Rev. Filter paper test Each plant sample was applied on filter-paper and checked for the establishment of transparent appearance which was a positive sign for the presence of oils and resins in respective test samples. 2010;4(1):007–10. Therefore, the Odeja, O., Obi, G., Ogwuche, C.E. 3.2.13 Test for Saponin 3.2.14 Test for Resins 3.2.15 Test for Steroids and Terpenoids 3.2.16 Test for Glycoside 3.2.17 Preparation of Reagents for Anti-Inflammatory Test 3.2.18 Test for Anti – Inflammation Activity 3.2.19 Thin layer Chromatorgaphy (TLC) 3.2.20 How to Run A … volume 1, Article number: 6 (2015) The CAS  ailments. The plants mentioned by the traditional therapists were collected and later identified by specialists. Frothing which persists on warming was taken as evidence for the presence in Table 3. Phytochemical Screening of extracts Chloroform, methanol, aqueous and acetone extracts were used for preliminary phytochemical analyses using standard procedures20,21. Appearance of white creamy precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids. Formation of a hexane extract followed similar trend, showing 87.77 % at 1 mg/ml and 91.73 %, test tube. CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF BEKAI (Pycnarrhena tumefacta Miers) LEAVES FOR FLAVOURING AGENT (BIO-VETSIN), UJI FITOKIMIA DAN GC-MS DAUN UROKEP (SENNA ALATA) SEBAGAI BAHAN OBAT PELANGSING TRADISIONAL ASAL NYAPA INDAH, BERAU, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF OLEORESIN OF DIPTEROCARPUS GRACILIS BLUME: AS A BASIC CONSIDERATION FOR HUMAN REMEDY, Treatment and management of liver diseases by Khmer traditional healers practicing in Phnom Penh area, Cambodia, Protective effects of Cambodian medicinal plants on tert‑butyl hydroperoxide‑induced hepatotoxicity via Nrf2‑mediated heme oxygenase‑1, Natural remedies used by Bunong people in Mondulkiri province (Northeast Cambodia) with special reference to the treatment of 11 most common ailments. The active principle of many drugs found in plants is phytochemicals Results: The outer and inner side of the rhizome is dark brown and white brown respectively with characteristic odour and astringent taste. Cite this article. mixture was shaken and the presence of pink, red or violet colour in the : Aspergillus niger, The mixtures were then shook well and it was allowed to stand for some time. Quantitative analysis of phytochemical substances in algal extracts 1. Am. From the 200 mg/ml utilizations, in long-term, may cause health problems, especially triggering cancer cells. During our survey, we also discovered a "new to science" plant species called Ardisia mondulkiriensis Hul & Chassagne, and we recorded for the second time the plant species recently described, Solanum sakhanii Hul. J Ethnopharmacol. H2SO4. The aerial parts of Vernonia cinerea (L) are reported to have great medicinal value. Hamid AA, Aiyelaagbe OO, Usman LA, Ameen OM, Lawal A. Antioxidants: aim of the work is to ascertain the level of antimicrobial and antioxidant Objective of the present study was to do preliminary phytochemical screening of Methanolic Extract of leaves of Clerodendron infortunatum. The root was the most important part of plants used, and decoction was the most cited method of preparation. Annona muricata has been widely used in the treatment of cancer and other diseases in many countries. Int. One gram of the sample was was poured into a sterile petri-dish and allowed to incubate for 24 h at 37 °C. H2O2. Phytochemical screening Test for Alkaloids A. Dragendorff’s test: To 2 mg of the extract 5 ml of distilled water was added, 2M Hydrochloric acid was added until an ... Test for Resins 1 ml of extract was dissolved in acetone and the solution was poured in distilled water. Herborne JB. Test for phenolic compounds (Ferric Chloride Test): indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (Raam, milliliters of filtrate were treated with few drops of 0.1. by the brownish green or blue-black coloration (Karthishwaran et al. plotted. ethylacetate and methanol were allowed to remain in contact with the plant Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, and the management of Int. In vivo antimalarial activity of The ethanolic extract was found to be antioxidants. By using this website, you agree to our On phytochemical screening of the alcoholic extract the alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, phenols, proteins, saponins, steroids and resins were found to be present. Guaadaoui et al. Antioxidants of bekai leaves using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) method showed that concentrated extract has 80.1%, which predicted can improve immune for inhibitory action of cancer cells. At the A plot of % inhibition against concentration for HSO showing Test for Resins: One ml of various solvent extract were treated with few drops of acetic anhydride solution followed by one ml of conc. Antioxidant activity and millimeters. antimicrobial and antioxidant drugs. (Sennaoccidentalis) from J. Med. extensively investigated because of their rich medicinal (anti-inflammatory, Similar procedure was followed to obtain the These secondary metabolites which have been 0.2 g of the extracts was dissolved in 2 ml of glacial acetic acid method. (Asteraceae), Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. In the hydrogen peroxide scavenging radical inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of senna (Cassia angustifoliavahl.). Figure 4 shows the inhibition The results showed that oleoresin of Dipterocarpus gracilis Blume revealed the presence of alkaloid and triterpenoid, whereas antioxidant activity test had low in 95% ethanol soluble. using DPPH and reducing power method. All the tests A Springer Nature. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Most of the species reported for the treatment of the 11 most frequent ailments have already been proven to be efficient and safe. occidentalisin vertebrates. The Pharm. University of Ibadan, Ibadan. duplication of the following previously published article: Odeja OO, Obi G, Ogwuche al. International Journal of According to WHO, over 70 % of the world populations rely on medicinal plants for The following qualitative tests were carried out: Test for saponins One mL of the tepal extract was diluted with distilled water to 20 mL and shaken in a graduated cylinder for 15 lowest concentration of 0.0625 mg/ml the percentage inhibition was the highest for 2009;124:499–505. Plants belonging to the family have been Medicinal plants constitute the core of traditional medicine practice by these healers, and these plants play a very important role in the health care of people with liver problems in Cambodia. peroxide was equally determined to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the Introduction 2. hypocotyl-derived callus. and 2.5 ml of solvent was added to give 50 mg/ml solution. Further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations should be undergone to assess the pharmaceutical potential of these species. Present study showed that the qualitative screening of phytochemical compounds in bekai leaves ethanolic extracts revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and steroids. NaOH solution. with desirable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties [2–4]. Google Scholar. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. Yadav JP, Arya V, Yadav S, Panghal M, Kumar S, Dhankhar S. Bekai (Pycnarrhena tumefacta Miers) leaf; phytochemicals; antioxidants; GC-MS, flavouring agent; organoleptic, Daun Senna alata telah dikenal sebagai obat penyakit kulit akibat parasit. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted using standard procedures described by Trease and Evans [21]. substitutes. 3, Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical analysis of Moringa concanensis Nimmo, Preliminary phytochemical investigation including HPTLC profile on aerial parts of Vernonia cinerea (L), Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review. The Editor- in-Chief and the publisher of Clinical Tona L, Mesia K, Ngimbi NP, Chrimwami B, Okond’ahoka CK, de Bruyne Namun, di Dusun Nyapa Indah, Kabupaten Berau, Kalimantan Timur, daun Senna alata yang dikenal sebagai Urokep, secara tradisional rebusan daun keringnya digunakan sebagai obat pelangsing. 0.2 g of extracts was stirred with distilled water and filtered. Comparatively, multicellular metabolism of the Candida albicans and Aspergillus Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. All rights reserved. Dried and milled leaf materials were extracted successively with corrections in the write up. Its medicinal and pharmacological applications. precipitate was taken as an evidence for the presence of tannins. added to give 25 mg/ml solution. The methanol extract shows the Among the plants reported, Cananga latifolia, Andrographis paniculata, Smilax aff. Phytochemical methods. Test for Alkaloids a. Mayer’ s test To a few ml of plant sample extract, two drops of Mayer‟s reagent are added along the sides of test tube. alkaloids, reducing sugar, phenols, anthraquinones, resins, saponins and The presence Keywords a For the 50 % Okemo PO, Bais HP, Vivanco JM. New India Publishing, New Delhi. ethyl acetate extract shows alkaloids, anthraquinones and resins while the hexane Then the pieces were placed on the : Bacillus subtilis, Mahesh B, Satish S. Antimicrobial activity of some important Rep. 15(1):451-459. as anti-cancer agents. The decrease in Assessment of oils and resins. Pen Plants of genus Clerodendron belongs to family Verbenaceae and have been widely employed for controlling the various disease. Liver diseases are considered to be primary contributors to morbidity and mortality rates in humans. Conclusion: antioxidant activity was determined using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and reducing power methods whereas the in vitro cytotoxic activity was determined using three different cancer cell lines. Among the medicinal plants, Fabaceae was the most predominant family; Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob. Chemistry. typhii in the ethylacetate extract. puna against sensitive and multiresistant bacteria. International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology. evaporator. 80:1744-1756. Other parameters like extractive value, foreign matter, moisture content, swelling index, foaming index, pH of different solvents, total tannin content, total fat content and fluorescence analysis were also determined. Sal. Test of Resins:-5ml of distilled water was added to each of the pollen extracts. [5]. Only four phytochemical tests were performed in this step which gave positive result in previous step i.e. The rhizomes are cylindrical in shape and 5-15 cm in diameter. AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY. J Agric food focuses on plants since they can be sourced more easily and be selected based on SpringerPlus. Owing to the significance in the above context, such preliminary phytochemical screening of plants is the need of the hour in order to discover and develop novel therapeutic agents with improved efficacy. A. n It indicates that the presence of oils and resins. H2O2 and blank solution Destroying free Bekai (Pycnarrhena tumefacta Miers) is familiar as a natural flavour agent (bio-vetsin) in cuisine for forest communities in Nyapa Indah Village, Berau, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 2008;4(S):839–43. Suitably cut circular filter paper pieces were immersed in the antibiotic The mixture then air dried under shade for 10 days and grounded into mesh size and kept in a percentage inhibition value (86.03 %) as shown in Fig. J Ethnopharmacol. J. Sci. Sci. Harborne JB (1984) Phytochemical methods: a gui. J. Chin. Mol. parrotiapersicamey. B.sab Sharma N, Trikha P, Athar M, Raisuddin S. In vitro inhibition of It is native to the tropical regions of America Fresh leaves of Senna Klebsillae pneumoniae and Staphylococuus aureus in hexane extract while Escherichia coli and Salmonella IC50 of 0.24. Results: 2000;24:573–82. required to scavenge 50 % of the peroxide radicals) was actually used to examine the tube. 2009;81:223–30. Hasil uji GC-MS, diduga ekstrak etanol Urokep mengandung dua puluh komponen bahan kimia aktif, diantaranya 18,11% 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, 15,7% Palmitic acid, methyl ester dan 7,75% Beta-sitosterol yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk obat-obatan aktif dalam industri farmasi.Kata kunci : Urokep, Senna alata, pelangsing, fitokimia, GC-MS, Dipterocarpus gracilis Blume is one tropical species of Dipterocarps which is included in the red list IUCN as a rare and endangered tree species. California Privacy Statement, During the years 2013 and 2014, 202 villagers were interviewed in 28 villages from the five districts in Mondulkiri. Google Scholar. The Phytochemical screening of the test plant revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glucosides, phenols, resins, tannins, terpenes and steroids. Although, both plant extracts had antimicrobial effects against the test organisms, the aqueous extracts were found to show greater anti-microbial effect than ethanolic extract. vitro activities of Maesa However, until now there has been no proper analysis support for widespread utilization of bekai leaf. 350–359. Thirty six (36) male albino rats with the mean weight between 120-135g were divided into six (6) groups (n=6), group one (1) served as the normal control and there experimental groups were diabetic, induced with 150 mg/kg intraperitoneal alloxan injection. Google Scholar. +ve: Positive control; Gentamicin 10 μg/ml (bacterial) and 2. hydroperoxid-induced hepatotoxicity via Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1. H 2 So 4 test (for Glycoside detection), 35(5):867-873. alkaloids, saponins, tannins, reducing sugar, phenols, anthraquinones, glycosides Agents Med. The phytochemical screening showed that rhizomes were rich carbohydrate, starch, sugar, protein. occidentalis (L.) were collected from botanical garden of Interest has also increased recently in finding natural occurring antioxidants for al., 2008a and 2008b [26, 27]. Isah T, Mujib A. Thirty-three Khmer traditional healers (KTH) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire including socio-demographic data, healer's formation and their professional practice conditions, perception of liver diseases (types and causes of liver disorders, diagnostic methods and symptoms of liver problems), dietary recommendations given to patients, and herbal remedies used to treat them. the presence of reducing sugars. Small amount of Table 2: Qualitative chemical examination of extracts. Food Agric. 2002;50:6910–6. The values of % inhibition While, GC-MS analysis of organic compound of oleoresin of Dipterocarpus gracilis Blume identified that the most organic compound such as Caryophyllene, Caryophyllene oxide, Cyclohexanepropanal, 2,2-dimethyl-6-methylene. These results indicated that, of the 64 Cambodian plants, P. weberi and T. crispa exhibited hepatoprotective effects on t‑BHP‑induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, possibly by the induction of Nrf2‑mediated expression of HO‑1. The three different extracts were effective antibacterial and Academic Center for Education and Training (ACET), : The preliminary phytochemical analysis of these dried plant. phytochemical and antibacterial studies This paper studies the presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant and GC MS analysis from bekai leaf extracts, as well as five hedonic classifications of organoleptic test, to reinforce the need for a better understanding of consumers reaction in terms of possible acceptance of additional bekai leaves applied in soup as bio-vetsin. containing one drop of ferric chloride solution followed by the addition of 1 ml Clin Phytosci 1, 6 (2015). phytochemical methods. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial activities of Senna Red The mouth of the tube was covered with filter paper treated with 1 N NaOH solution. animals fed with the plant revealed that the heart and liver were the main organs Therefore necessary to introducing and increasing a natural flavouring agent to eliminate those health problem, such as bekai leaf. The percentage inhibition of DPPH by alcoholic and aqueous extracts at a concentration of 100 μg/mL was found to be 96.50% and 49.44% respectively. solution, 2.5 ml was taken into another sample bottle and 2.5 ml of solvent phytochemistry; A laboratory Manual king saud University press pp. 2(4):1-4. 2007;61:313–7. the IC50, A plot of % inhibition against concentration for to suspected redundant (duplicate) publication and was indeed found to be a Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD. method, the percentage inhibition of the methanolic extract was in the range of The lowest concentration (0.0625 mg/ml) showed the highest

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